Reader’s Question:

What remnants of Indianapolis’ booming automobile history are still left along Capitol Avenue?  ~ Mark S., Indianapolis

HI’s Answer:

The earliest automobile-related companies in Indianapolis began operating in the late 1890s.  Many of the men who were innovators in the field started out manufacturing carriages or bicycles and transitioned to motorized vehicles.  Among the first were Atlas Engine Works at 1901 Martindale Avenue, International Motor Company’s Waverley Department at 139 South East Street, Charles H. Black Manufacturing Company at 44 East Maryland Street, and National Motor Vehicle Company at 1101 East 22nd Street.

In the early 1900s, as more and more players joined in the car craze, the locations of automobile production plants and sales facilities migrated north and west of Monument Circle.  Many of the companies landed in the blocks just north of the Statehouse, in what had formerly been a residential area.  In the first few decades of the 20th century, there were more automobile-related businesses located on N. Capitol Avenue than on any other street in town.  The stretch of Capitol Avenue from the 300 block to the 1500 block was referred to as “Automobile Row.”  A page from a randomly selected Indianapolis City Directory during that time period (below) illustrates the phenomenon.

The 1921 city directory illustrates how block-after-block of Capitol Avenue contained automobile-related businesses (scan courtesy of IUPUI Digital Library)

The 1921 city directory shows block-after-block of auto-related businesses on N. Capitol Avenue             (scan courtesy of IUPUI Digital Library)                  CLICK TO ENLARGE

Over the years, many of the buildings in which automotive concerns were once located gave way to surface parking lots, parking garages, new high-rise office buildings, or the interstate highway system.  However, three noteworthy structures still survive today.  They are the buildings at 433 North Capitol Avenue, 1008 North Capitol Avenue, and 1402 North Capitol Avenue.

The Gibson Company Building

433 N. Capitol Avenue was originally the home of the Gibson Company, which was named for its founder, Cecil Everett Gibson (1881-1943).  Gibson’s first business was a bicycle shop.  He quickly turned his attentions to automobile-related enterprises, once it was obvious that motor vehicles were here to stay.  The 5-story building on the southeast corner of W. Michigan Street and N. Capitol Avenue was built in 1916 and 1917.  The project was designed by the Indianapolis firm of Herbert L. Bass and Company, with later modifications by architect Frank B. Hunter.  However, the Gibson Company Building was never used for automobile manufacturing, as was originally intended by Gibson.  Initially, it housed the sales of Willys-Overland Motor Company vehicles, which at the time were second in production to Ford Motor Company cars.  The Gibson Building was reported to have contained one of the most ornate showrooms in the city.

1935 image of the Gibson Company Building (Bass Photo Company Collection, Indiana Historical Society)

1935 image of the Gibson Company Building on the southeast corner of West Michigan Street and North Capitol Avenue                  (photo courtesy of Bass Photo Company Collection, Indiana Historical Society)

Early on, Cecil Gibson’s partner was Carl G. Fisher, who had built the first automobile showroom in Indianapolis in 1903.  The Fisher-Gibson Company was founded in 1911, the same year Carl Fisher, Arthur Newby, James Allison and Frank Wheeler co-founded the Indianapolis Motor Speedway.  In 1912, Carl Fisher withdrew from the Fisher-Gibson Company to devote his energies to developing the Prest-O-Lite automobile headlight system.  Fisher’s name was dropped, and the company name reverted to the Gibson Company.  Management of the Gibson Company passed to Joseph M. Bloch, Charles B. Sommers, and Aaron Waldheim.  Charles B. Sommers’ unique home on Cold Spring Road was the subject of a Historic Indianapolis article in 2012, which you can read here.

View of the Gibson Company Building at 433 N. Capitol Avenue facing southeast (photo by Sharon Butsch Freeland)

View of the Gibson Company Building at 433 N. Capitol Avenue facing southeast           (photo by Sharon Butsch Freeland)

The Gibson Company primarily sold auto parts, auto accessories, and home appliances.   The non-automotive products included Norge refrigerators, Hamilton dryers, and Arvin televisions.  Joseph M. Bloch, Charles B. Sommers, and Edward M. Glass formed a companion company, the Atlas Manufacturing Company.  That entity eventually assumed ownership of the Gibson Company Building, which it retained until 1985.  Since that time, the Gibson Compamy Building has been owned by American United Life Insurance Company and is managed by Lake County Trust Co.  The Gibson Company Building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2006.  Today it houses the technology teams of ExactTarget, as well as Sahm’s Café and Sahm’s Tavern.

View of the Gibson Building at 443 North Capitol Avenue facing northeast (photo by Sharon Butsch Freeland)

View of the Gibson Company Building at 433 North Capitol Avenue facing northeast          (photo by Sharon Butsch Freeland)

The Stutz Motor Car Company Buildings

The Stutz Motor Car Company was founded in 1911 by Harry Clayton Stutz (1876-1930) under the name of Ideal Motor Car Company.  After his car did well in the very first Indianapolis 500, Stutz renamed his company after himself.  The first building in the Stutz complex was constructed in 1911, with additional structures following over the next eight years.  In 1919, Stutz needed money to fund his automobile production, so he sold stock in the company.  After a falling out with a stockholder, he decided to sell his interest in the Stutz Motor Car Company.  Bethlehem Steel Corporation director Charles M. Schwab subsequently took control of the Stutz Motor Car Company.  Although Stutz himself was no longer involved in the company he founded, it continued to be well-known for its innovation and quality throughout the 1920s and into the 1930s.  After the stock market crash of 1929, the company suffered from the economic hardships of the Great Depression, eventually closing its doors in 1935.

The Stutz Motor Car Company Building at 1002 N. Capitol Avenue facing southwest (photo by Sharon Butsch Freeland)

View of the Stutz Motor Company Building at 1008 N. Capitol Avenue facing southwest  (photo by Sharon Butsch Freeland)

In 1940, Eli Lilly and Company purchased the former Stutz properties to house its packaging division.  It remained a Lilly packaging facility until 1982, following which time the buildings stood vacant for many years.  In 1993, the structures were purchased by local developer Turner Woodard, who adapted the seven buildings into a business center for small and mid-size companies.  Stutz Business Center tenants represent a wide variety of professions, including attorneys, architects, advertising firms, and a number of artists’ studios.  The Stutz Business Center also houses the breakfast and lunch eatery, Bearcats Restaurant.

View of the Stutz Motor Company at 1002 N. Capitol Avenue looking northwest (photo by Sharon Butsch Freeland)

View of the Stutz Motor Company Building at 1008 North Capitol Ave facing northwest      (photo by Sharon Butsch Freeland)

The H C S Motor Car Company Building

1402 North Capitol Avenue was originally the home of the H C S Motor Car Company, which was also started by Harry C. Stutz.  H C S was Stutz’s second automobile manufacturing company.  When he started up the new company and had to give it a different name, he decided to use his initials.  Designed by the architectural firm of Preston C. Rubush and Edgar O. Hunter, the 4-story brick H C S Motor Car Company Building was constructed on the northwest corner of West 14th Street and North Capitol Avenue in 1921.  In May of that same year, the H C S Roadster was the pace car for the Indianapolis 500-Mile Race.

Stutz also founded the Stutz Fire Engine Company about the same time that he started H C S Motor Car Co.  It was located in a building across the street at 1411 North Capitol Avenue.  H C S manufactured cars meant for personal use only until 1925.  In its final few years years of existence, H C S produced taxis.  The H C S Cab Manufacturing Company ceased operation in 1927.  The production of fire trucks was discontinued in 1929, when the stock market crashed.  Harry Stutz died in 1930 from a ruptured appendix, which had been misdiagnosed as influenza.  The Depression and Stutz’s death put an end to his contributions to the automobile industry.

View of the HCS Motor Car Company at 1402 N. Capitol Avenue (photo by Sharon Butsch Freeland)

View of the HCS Motor Car Company at 1402 N. Capitol Avenue looking southwest          (photo by Sharon Butsch Freeland)

The H C S Motor Car Company Building was purchased by the Continental Optical Corporation of New York in 1928.  Continental was an independent maker of eyeglasses.  It moved its operations to Indianapolis, and the building became its lens factory for nearly half-a-century.  The property was purchased by S. Cohn & Son Auto Company in 1977, a local, family-owned parts and accessories business.  When it relocated to the northwest side in 2004, the property was then purchased by 1402 Associates LLC, a joint venture between members of two local companies, Shiel Sexton and Gregory & Appel.

Shiel Sexton, an Indianapolis development firm, is located at 902 North Capitol Avenue in yet another historic building with an interesting history that involved the Vonnegut family.  Gregory & Appel, the oldest and largest independently owned insurance agency in Indiana, has been located in several different historic buildings over the 129 years of its existence.  Under the guidance of these two venerable Indianapolis companies, the H C S Motor Car Company Building underwent a complete renovation and became the home of Gregory & Appel, as well as several other firms.  1402 N. Capitol Avenue was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2009.  Many people are familiar with the first facility Stutz built at 1008 N. Capitol, because that building retains the Stutz name today, but fewer are aware that 1402, just a few blocks north, was also a Stutz building.

View of the HCS Motor Car Company at 1402 N. Capitol Avenue (photo by Sharon Butsch Freeland)

View of the HCS Motor Car Company at 1402 N. Capitol Avenue looking northwest      (photo by Sharon Butsch Freeland)

Coincidentally, these three properties discussed above will be on a tour of historic buildings this Friday during the 2013 National Preservation Conference of the National Trust for Historic Preservation.  Dubbed “Preservation at the Crossroads,” this is the first time the prestigious annual gathering has ever been held in Indianapolis.  On Friday afternoon, November 1st, convention attendees will visit these and several other industrial or commercial buildings dating to the early 1900s, all of which have been beautifully adapted to modern uses.  You can view a 2-minute video about the National Preservation Conference here.


14 responses to “HI Mailbag: Indianapolis’ “Automobile Row””

  1. D M Shea says:

    Sharon: Wonderful – I am trying to print to send to Kent, or can you?

    But also, why not add the chapter on how imported / foreign cars (Rolls, Jag, Renault, etc.) came to Indy and Capitol Avenue — it is an unknown chapter in local auto history, and Kent Emigh documented and has both written and photos, likewise the original co-partner John Schaler had even more documented photos, when Eli L. bought his first RR, the secret copy of Coronation Rolls, for JK. It included the business page story I wrote when my city editor told me to do a tongue in cheek feature about “2 crazy young guys who think they can sell foreign cars in the heart of the motor belt.” Over and over I tried to get both John and Kent to give the history they documented to the Historical Society — Kent still could, but at his death all of John’s history and photos ended up with a Lafayette (I think) lawyer. I think you could do it right.

  2. Sharon Butsch Freeland says:

    Thanks, Donna. Glad you enjoyed reading it. I would be happy to write an article about Auto-Imports Ltd., the company owned by John J. Schaler III, William H. Ball Sr., and R. Kent Emigh in the 1950s and 1960s. As their facility was located at 422 N. Capitol Avenue, it was in the very block where “Automobile Row” first started.
    It’s difficult to print the HI articles or copy and paste them, as they don’t conform to an e-mail message space or a Word doc without creating the right margins and other settings. If you want to share this (or any other) article, it’s better just to copy and paste the hyperlink into an e-mail, so that the recipient can read it online. I sent the link to my article to Kent a few minutes ago. Here it is, in case you need it for other purposes:

  3. Kate says:

    I worked in the northern-most Stutz building in the mid-80’s. It may have looked abandoned, but it wasn’t! I think the idea was for the Stutz buildings to become a small business incubator. Henry Childrey had several small enterprises there, mostly automotive supply chain concerns.

  4. Scott says:

    The Indianapolis Fire Department joined the “motorized/modern” fire departments and ended the horse-drawn era in 1921 when the department ordered 25 pieces of Stutz fire apparatus.
    I am a proud owner of a 1921 Stutz pumper that was once IFD Engine 18.

  5. Sam Smith says:

    Hello Sharon,

    Not sure if you’d remember me, but I wanted to say hello. I used to work at the IMA and have since changed professions. Haven’t we all! I’ve been asked to explore the history of foreign car dealerships in Indianapolis, particularly Jaguar cars. In doing so, I was also looking for more info about Kent Emigh. I understand that he’s quite a historian on the subject. If you have suggestions for resources, it would be greatly appreciated.

    Kindest Regards,

    Sam Smith

  6. Sharon Butsch Freeland says:

    Of course, I remember you. I think we first met through Carol Adney and/or Gary Freeman. My sister Gloria also worked at IMA in the late ’70s and early ’80s. In addition, I was the Realtor who sold your home on Northgate Drive in about 1986.
    Kent Emigh is my brother-in-law. I know Kent is quite knowledgeable about Mercedes-Benzes and Rolls-Royces, but I’m not sure about Jaguars. I will get in touch with him and ask him if it’s okay for me to give you his contact info. Kent has lived in California for more than fifty years, now. He will be 87 years old this year.

  7. D MIKELS SHEA says:

    Sharon: You might share with Sam that somewhere I have Kent’s documentation from first imported cars sold to each buyer with photos. I wrote the first story on foreign cars–actually my city editor who frequently assigned me tongue-in-cheek features assigned me thusly:”Mikels, there are a couple young nutty guys re-doing an old building (address on N. Capitol with oriental rugs and crystal chandeliers–they think they can sell foreign cars in the heart of the motor belt–go do a fun story.” What I found was an elegant showroom being created (with artifacts from then being demolished N. Meridian homes) and met Kent and John Schaler for the first time. (They had started in Granny Habig’s goat barn on the south side, sold their first Rolls to a gentleman in a panama hat who wrote out a check paying in full by the name of Eli Lilly. I wrote a serious story, then they gave me tips, including exclusive on secret purchase of birthday gift- providing I not name recipient, so I was the first to sit in the copy of the Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Rolls….complete with fitted ostrich-kin luggage, Waterford vases, Circassian walnut, etc.

  8. Sam Smith says:

    D. Mikels Shea, Sharon

    Thank you so much for for adding to this inquiry. What sparked this subject was some debate among imported car enthusiasts (particularly Jaguar Association of Greater Indiana- JAGIN) about when imports were first sold in Indianapolis, and who owned dealerships. Speculation ranged from the early 1960’s to the early 1970’s, which clearly didn’t account for the fact that Rolls-Royce, Mercedes, Austin Healey, Triumph, and other marques were sold much earlier.
    If an actual timeline exists about Indianapolis imported car dealerships, their locations and personnel, it would be a wonderful resource for car enthusiasts, and may put to rest some of the wild claims and speculation that currently exist.
    Earlier this week, JAGIN member, Tom Silnes, brought a Stout Field race program that had ads for both Rolls-Royce and Mercedes dealerships from the 1950s. Some dealerships were located at 38th and College Avenue. Perhaps the best part of all of this project is hearing from esteemed members of the Indianapolis community who have first hand knowledge and documentation of these historical events.

    Again, thank you so much for responding and please keep in touch.


    Sam Smith

  9. Sharon Butsch Freeland says:

    As I understand it, Auto Imports, Inc. first had a small automobile repair shop at another location, but the first proper showroom and repair service operated by Kent Emigh and his partners, John Schaler III and William H. Ball Sr., opened in 1953 at 422 North Capitol Avenue. The 1953 Indianapolis City Directory is not available online, but here’s a link to the 1954 directory:
    I will call Kent today. There is a three-hour time difference, so I won’t call just yet.

  10. Tom Clarke says:

    Dear Mrs Freeland,
    I am a motoring historian researching John Jerome Schaler III and have material about his Rolls-Royce dealership at the Greater City Garage. I met him once during a trip to Hot Springs, VA, in 1997 or so, but I don’t know what has happened to him since. Might Kent Emigh be able to help?
    Many thanks,
    Tom Clarke,
    Cheltenham, England

  11. Sharon Butsch Freeland says:

    Thanks for writing. I regret to inform you that John Jerome Schaler III passed away on 29 March 2004. He is buried with his parents and other Schaler relatives in Calvary Catholic Cemetery on the south side of Indianapolis. I’m sure my brother-in-law would be happy to provide you with any information he might have about John. Kent’s e-mail address is

  12. Diana V says:

    Hi, I have a photo of my father’s of 4 men standing in front of the Rolls Royce Bentley Greater City Garage. I would love to have it looked at to see if anyone knows who the people are. Unfortunately, it’s not dated, but possibly the 1940s

  13. Sharon Butsch Freeland says:

    We would be glad to take a look at it. Can you send a high resolution scan of it to me via e-mail attachment at If you are not able to do so, may we borrow the photo to scan it and then return it?

  14. Carolyn wheeler says:

    Hello — I got to this site because I was looking for a photograph of the old Herff-Jones building on North Capitol. My father worked there from the time he got out of the Army at the end of WWII until his death in 1971. I have been trying to write some of my early memories and hoped to include a picture of that building that I thought had been the Stutz plant before it was Herff-Jones. Is there any way you can assist me with this? Thank you.

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