Window restoration is always a key element to preserving old buildings. This view peers north from the top floor of the Administration Building at the Central State Hospital site, photo taken earlier this year.
This is the second piece of a three part series covering the revitalization of Central State Hospital, the former insane asylum that closed its doors in 1994. The first piece touched upon some of the history of the 160 acre mental health complex on Indy’s near westside. This week, we cover some of the new developments at Central State, focusing on the restoration of a few historic buildings by Reverie Estates.
Though Central State sat predominantly disused after Governor Evan Bayh ordered the facility shut down in 1994, the hospital’s grounds were not entirely abandoned. The Indiana Medical History Museum, established in the Old Pathology Building in 1969, has welcomed visitors since 1984.
Along Warman Avenue, on the eastern edge of the property, sit a row of houses built in the 1940s initially intended to be built as physician’s residences to entice doctors and nurses with free room and board. However, due to a lack of enthusiasm by staff to live in the new, small double houses, they were instead used to house veterans and as exit houses for released patients transitioning back into society. The Indianapolis Police Department Mounted Patrol established stables for their horses on the hospital’s western perimeter in 2003.
In 2005, the short-lived Beckmann Theater Company featured a site-specific presentation of IUPUI professor David Schanker’s play Asylum, in a theater constructed inside of the 120 year-old Laundry Building, which later housed cars for the IPD motor pool. Stranger still, Olympic diving hopefuls once practiced their twists and turns on trampolines and harnesses in Central State’s Bahr Building, a one-time treatment center for children and adolescent patients, built in 1960 on the southeastern part of the grounds.
In March of 2003, the city purchased the 160 acre property from the state, and soon after, requested proposals on how best to redevelop Central State– for which, planners would have to navigate a complex number of challenges regarding the site. Firstly, four protected historic buildings (highlighted above in a graphic from the Central Greens LLC 2007 proposal which can be found here) would have to be restored and incorporated into the overall plan. Additionally, planners would have to make a decision on whether or not to save or raze the remaining dozen or so buildings that stand in various stages of disrepair.
Hidden below the unkempt grounds were thousands of feet of asbestos laden service tunnels that connected each building, underground fuel tanks, the buried foundation of the enormous Seven Steeples woman’s building that had been razed in the 1970s, and a section of unmarked graves of patients in the northwest corner of the property.
Ultimately, the city chose Mike Higbee, president of Development Concepts INC and onetime Director of Metropolitan Development under Mayor Bill Hudnut, and Charlie Garcia, President of Garcia Construction Group, to redevelop the site. The city was presented with the aforementioned Central State Development Land Use Plan in August of 2007, proposing an array of park space, residential and commercial units, surrounding a centralized cultural village incorporating the repurposed historic buildings. Then the economy took a bit of a nose-dive.
Fast forward to 2011. With the economy back on the upswing, the delayed redevelopment efforts re-started. The Carmel based company Pedcor were among the first to act, opening the aptly named “Steeples on Washington” apartments on the southeast corner of the grounds. But as of 2013, there was still no concrete plan regarding the redevelopment of the historic buildings to be included in the “cultural village” at the heart of the massive grounds.
That is, until Reverie Estates entered the picture late last year. Having already purchased and restored several historic apartment buildings, such as Penn Arts and the Piccadilly near downtown Indianapolis, Reverie would first attack the most pressing challenge: what to do with the building most associated with Central State: The Administration Building.
Phase one of Reverie’s rehabilitation plan was to revitalize the two and a half story, brick and stone Administration Building into student housing. Those disinclined to the notion of possibly living in a building that once housed patients of the hospital should note: though this building is frequently mistaken for one of several patient wards, it was constructed specifically to house the hospital’s staff. Designed by Purdue-educated architect, O. A. Tislow, and completed in 1939, the “Admin Building” housed 100 employees of the hospital, in gender-segregated, dormitory-style rooms, while allowing spaces for doctor and dentist offices.
When Reverie Estates began work on the Administration Building earlier this year, 20 years had passed since its doors had been ordered shut by then Governor Bayh. The building was a wreck of its former self– its basement was partially flooded, rooms and halls were littered with scattered remnants of its medical past, and sprinkled with refuse and graffiti from two decades worth of vandals and thrill seekers.
After first clearing out years of refuse and repairing the damage inflicted by the combination of mother nature and neglect, the task at hand is to retain as much of the historic character of the building as possible, while updating the rooms to meet the needs of a modern world. The original terrazzo and tile floors, such as the one above, will be repaired and restored where possible.
Surprisingly, each former dormitory room was still outfitted with its original hardwood closet and shelves, miraculously spared despite the years of abandonment. Each unit will be stripped and resurfaced to recreate the original finish and completed with new hardware.
Even more amazingly, a pair of wood paneled and parquet floored libraries have survived as well, with minimal damage despite exposure to the elements. These too, will be restored and updated to their original purpose. In addition, recreation rooms, kitchen and the communal areas will serve the needs of IUPUI and other students preparing to start school this fall.
For the final part of this three part series, we’ll revisit the construction site at Central State, for some after photos, to see how the project has progressed, and cover Reverie Estates’ plans for the nearby Men’s Recreation Building.
Photos by the author unless otherwise noted.